Calculation of Carbon Emission from boilers involves a series of steps that account for the type of fuel used, the efficiency of the boiler, and the amount of fuel consumed. Boilers typically burn fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, or coal to produce heat, and the combustion of these fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2), a significant greenhouse gas.

**Steps to Calculate Carbon Emissions from Boilers**

**Determine the Fuel Consumption**:

**Fuel Type**: Identify the type of fuel used (e.g., natural gas, oil, coal).**Fuel Usage**: Measure the amount of fuel consumed over a specific period, usually in cubic meters (m³) for natural gas, liters (L) for oil, or kilograms (kg) for coal.

**Obtain the Fuel’s Carbon Emission Factor**:

- The
**carbon emission factor**is a value that represents the amount of CO2 produced per unit of fuel burned. This value depends on the type of fuel. For example:**Natural Gas**: Approximately 2.75 kg CO2 per cubic meter (m³) of natural gas.**Heating Oil**: Approximately 2.68 kg CO2 per liter (L) of heating oil.**Coal**: Approximately 2.42 kg CO2 per kilogram (kg) of coal.

- These values can vary slightly depending on the specific composition of the fuel.

**Calculate the Total Carbon Emissions**:

**Use the formula**:**Total CO2 Emissions (kg)=Fuel Consumption×Carbon Emission Factor**

**Example Calculation**:

- If a boiler consumes 1,000 cubic meters (m³) of natural gas in a month: Total CO2 Emissions=1,000 m³×2.75 kg CO2/m³=2,750 kg CO2
- This result means the boiler emits 2,750 kg of CO2 over that period.

**Adjust for Boiler Efficiency**:

**Boiler Efficiency**: Boilers are not 100% efficient, meaning not all the fuel’s energy content is converted into useful heat. The efficiency is typically expressed as a percentage.- If the boiler is 85% efficient, it means only 85% of the fuel’s energy is used for heating, and the rest is wasted. However, carbon emissions calculations generally assume complete combustion, so efficiency adjustments are typically not needed unless calculating for energy use rather than emissions.

**Consider Period and Operating Hours**:

**Operating Hours**: If the boiler does not operate continuously, consider the total operating hours to calculate the fuel consumption during active periods.

**Account for Additional Emissions**:

Boilers may emit other greenhouse gases or pollutants (like NOx or SOx), depending on the fuel type. However, CO2 is typically the focus for carbon footprint calculations.

**Average Fuel Consumption per Month = 37500 LTR/ MONTH**

CO2 Emission factors for Heavy Oil

CO2 Factor = 3090 g/L

CH4 Factor = 0.06 g/L

N2O Factor = 0.013 g/L

GWP CH4 = 21

GWP N2O = 310

**CO2 Emission Calculation:**

**CO2 =** 37500 LTR X 3090 g / L X 1 kg/1000 g

= 115875 kg

**CH4 =** GWP X CH4 Factor X Consumption

= 21 X 0.06 g/L X 37500 L X 1 kg/1000g

= 47.25 kg

**N2O =** GWP X N2O Factor X Consumption

= 310 X 0.013g/L X 37500 L X 1 Kg/1000g

= 151.13 kg

Total CO2 Emission per Month = 115875 kg + 47.25 kg + 151.13 kg

= 116073.38 Kg

= **116 Ton**

Approx. Total CO2 Emission per Year = 116 X 12

= 1392 Ton

**Total Carbon Di Oxide Emission per year from boiler = 1392 Ton.**

**i.e Approx. =1400 Ton per Year.**

**Case II**

Average Fuel Consumption per Month = 15000 LTR/ MONTH

CO2 Emission factors for Heavy Oil

CO2 Factor = 3090 g/L

CH4 Factor = 0.06 g/L

N2O Factor = 0.013 g/L

GWP CH4 = 21

GWP N2O = 310

**CO2 Emission Calculation:**

**CO2 =** 15000 LTR X 3090 g / L X 1 kg/1000 g

= 46350 kg

**CH4 =** GWP X CH4 Factor X Consumption

= 21 X 0.06 g/L X 15000 L X 1 kg/1000g

= 18.9 kg

**N2O =** GWP X N2O Factor X Consumption

= 310 X 0.013g/L X 15000 L X 1 Kg/1000g

= 60.45 kg

Total CO2 Emission per Month = 46350 Kg + 18.9 Kg + 60.45 kg

= 46429.35 Kg

= 46.5 Ton

Approx. Total CO2 Emission Per Year = 46.5 X 12

= 558 Ton

**So Total Carbon Di Oxide Emission per year from boiler = 558 Ton.**